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Patient V.V. 76yoлечение зрения
Right eye: Terminal glaucoma, amaurosis (sight zero). 
Left Eye:  Glaucoma III V. Optic atrophy due to glaucoma, early cataract..
Before treatment: Glaucoma III V. Optic atrophy due to glaucoma, early cataract. 
Before treatment: vision 0.02, with correction – 5.0 D – 0.07. 
Patient with partial vision, has significantly diminished eyesight and peripheral vision. The process of visual perception is extremely difficult and slow.  The patient forms unclear, unstable, and sometimes incorrect perceptions of objects.  Optic atrophy due to glaucoma. 
Treatment: We performed four microsurgical operations: removal of tissue biopsy, a three-phase 3D autotransplantation of cellular material (cambium cells) inducing structural changes and regeneration of eye tissues and optic nerve, and removal of darkened lens with IOL implantation.
After treatment: vision in the left eye – 0.9! Intraocular pressure is normal.  Peripheral vision is largely restored. The patient has a good quality of vision with normal refraction.  He returned to his teaching job.  Full medical and social rehabilitation has been completed.

Patient R.V. 69 yoлечение зренияDiagnosis:
Right eye: Glaucoma II B, early cataract. 
Left eye: Glaucoma IV B, aphakia, amblyopia, optic nerve atrophy due to glaucoma, exotropia, angle of 15 degrees. 
Before treatment: Right eye: vision 0.5, no correction. Left eye: vision 0.02, correction + 10.0 D – 0.1. Intraocular pressure of 26 mmHg.  The patient is visually impaired, apathetic and reticent.
Treatment: We applied the same set of operative treatment.
After treatment: Right eye: vision 0.6. Left eye: vision 0.05, with correction + 9,0 D - 0,6! (contact lens). Intraocular pressure in both eyes is normal. Patient recovered normal vision and quality of life. The patient began to work.

Definition of atrophy, as a model of the pathological process

Atrophy (atrophia; а- + greek. Trophe- feed)  — reduction in weight and volume of an organ or tissue, accompanied by a weakening or cessation of their functions; atrophy results from poor tissue nutrition, which leads to a gradual replacement of parenchymal elements (performing organ’s functions) by fibrous tissue (scar tissue which normally should not be there as it prevents entities from normally carrying out their functions).

Atrophy is a disease characterized by disturbance of the normal structure of the optic nerve; it results in the destruction of nerve fibers, that transmit visual information, and their replacement with glial and connective tissue.  Optic nerve changes pathologically, losing its function. A man becomes blind.

Atrophy of the optic nerve

Atrophy of the optic nerve develops as a consequence of many diseases where there is inflammation, swelling, compression, damage or degeneration of fibers of the optic nerve or blood vessels that feed it.  Often, optic atrophy develops after the lesion of the central nervous system, tumours, syphilis, abscesses of the brain, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, skull trauma, intoxication, alcohol poisoning by methyl alcohol, etc. Optic nerve atrophy may be preceded by neuritis, congestive disk, hypertension and atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels. Often optic atrophy is observed after quinine poisoning, beriberi, starvation, towering skull, and past plasmocidum treatment. Optic nerve atrophy can develop as side effect of such diseases as occlusion of central retinal artery and the arteries feeding the optic nerve, uveitis, and pigmentary degeneration of the retina.

In the world of ophthalmology, treatment of optic nerve atrophy with the known methods is considered ineffective and it is futile if the duration of the disease exceeds one year and visual acuity has a correction of 0,01-0,02.

Atrophy of the optic nerve (atrophia nervi optici) черты:



A sequential use of new inpatient high-tech and less traumatic operations in visually impaired patients creates conditions for regeneration of nervous tissue and eye blood vessels.  Performing these procedures helps achieve a 10-fold improvement in the eye sight.

Few people know that in nature there are examples of animals which can regenerate their eyes fully or partially.  Gold fish Carassius auratus can completely regenerate optic nerve after it has been damaged.

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Carassius auratus can regenerate optic nerve 
after practically any type of damage

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Snail Achatina fulica after loosing an eye can re-grow
another eye or even a few

Gastropod clams (Strombus luhuanus) can fully regenerate visual organ and adult species of gigantic African snail (Achatina fulica), after removal of optical tentacle, can reproduce a few (2–3) structurally independent eyes.

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Salamanders (Salamandridae) can re-grow lens and retina

After injury amphibians can grow back the retina and lens of an eye through transdifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells.

Throughout the world, scientists are trying to learn how to regenerate damaged parts of the body, just as it is done for example by salamanders. "Human tissue is not completely recoverable, as for example, in axolotls, in which damaged organs can repeat the process of their formation, as it occurs in the bud" – says Elly Tanaka from the Center for Regenerative Therapies in Dresden (Germany).

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Professor Elly Tanaka explores methods for enhancing the regeneration ability in humans
The new field of regenerative medicine revolutionary changes the results of treatment due to the change of the recovery process in the organs after injuries and illnesses.

It is known that under certain conditions, neuron extensions and peripheral nerves have good ability to regenerate if damaged. This regeneration of nerve fibers preceded the phenomenon of degeneration.  Already in the first day neurolemmocytes of peripheral fiber become acutely activated.  The number of free ribosomes and polysomes in endoplasmic reticulum increases in the neurolemmocytes cytoplasm.
Significant number of spherical layered structures of different sizes is being formed in the neurolemmocytes cytoplasm.  Myelinated layer disappears as a separate zone of neurolemmocyte. Within 3-4 days neurolemmocytes significantly increase in volume. The number of neurolemmocytes continues to increase and by the end of the second week myelin and particles of axial cylinders dissipate.  Both glial elements and macrophages of connective tissue are involved in product resorption.
Axial cylinders in fibers of the central segment form at the ends clavate extensions - growth bulbs and grow into ribbonlike-located neurolemmocytes of the peripheral nerve segment and growing at a rate of 1-4 mm per day. The growth of nerve fibers is slowed down in the terminals. Later occurs myelination of nerve fibers and restoration of terminal structures and hence, nerve function.
Neuroscientists from the University of Münster, working under the leadership of Solon Thanos, have once again, demonstrated that the nerve tissue regenerates.  Scientists conducted a series of experiments in rats.   Under anaesthesia, the optic nerve was cut and then the ends were re-sewed.  A microsurgical operation followed and as a result of it, axons (nerve cell extensions) began to regenerate, and three months later the nerve was restored.

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The work of Professor Solon Thanos laid the foundation for treatments that help people, who seemed to have terminally lost sight, recover
Utilizing knowledge of functional anatomy of the visual organ, biology of the eye development, and achievements of international scientists in neuro-ophthalmology, we managed to radically improve the methods of impact on tissue of the visual analyzer through the use of microsurgery and cell transplantation.
This allowed the expansion of ophthalmology capabilities, using concealed potential of a human being to regenerate nerve tissues and achieve substantial progress in the treatment of optic nerve atrophy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Востановление зрения
Restorative operations on visual organs (eyes) are performed only by ophthalmology surgeons who are highly qualified.


Our laboratory staff developed a number of unique technologies for induced retinal and optic nerve regeneration, based on recent advances in microsurgery and cell transplantation.

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Our laboratory has exclusive rights to the development of these innovative treatment methods.

Partial sight is a significant decrease in vision, when the sharpness of central vision in the better seeing eye (with spectacle correction) is in the range of 0.05 - 0.2 or higher than 0.3 with significant distortion of other visual functions (convergence, accommodation, visual field, oculomotor functions, etc.). Patients with visual acuity within 0.4, but with progressive or recurrent disease are also considered as partially sighted. 
Partial sight is a consequence of eye diseases and general health degradation.  Partial sight is often associated with refractive errors: nearsightedness (myopia) and farsightedness (hyperopia). Visual perception in partially sighted people is characterized by insufficiency, fragmentation, and slowness, which impoverishes the sensual experience. Visual defects are divided into progressive and static.  Progressive defects include primary and secondary glaucoma, malignant forms of high myopia, retinal detachment, etc.  Static diseases are malformations: microphthalmia, albinism, farsightedness, high astigmatism and non-progressive effects of diseases and operations such as persistent corneal opacity, cataract , postoperative aphakia (absence of the lens, etc.).  Partially sighted people have difficulty with spatial orientation.  Fatigue from the visual work may lead to further deterioration of vision, as well as reduce mental and physical performance. However, in partially sighted people vision remains to be a lead analyzer, the touch does not replace their visual functions, as it does in the blind.

Blindness is the most pronounced developmental anomaly of the visual organ.  Blindness is a result of deep distortion of acuity of central vision (from 0 to 0.04) or narrowing of the visual field (up to 10-15degrees) at higher acuity.  For blind people it becomes (almost) impossible to visually perceive reality. The residual vision is classified into categories: absolute blindness, characterized by the complete absence of visual sensation, blindness, that also allows for light effect (ability to distinguish light from darkness), blindness, characterized by residual vision, which allows to count fingers near a person, distinguish between the contours, shapes and colors of objects at close distance.
In most cases of blindness residual vision remains: maximum acuity of central vision with residual vision of 0.04 with correction lenses for the better-seeing eye. The concept of blindness and the criteria for its definition are not identical in different countries. Blindness may be congenital or acquired. 
Upon blindness onset in adults specific abnormalities in sensory/cognitive development and personal character are usually not observed.  However, blindness significantly reduces one’s professional abilities and hampers orientation in space, especially while moving.

In assessing the degree of disability due to blindness in adults the acuiteness of central vision, field of vision and other visual functions are taken into consideration. This differentiates blindness definitions for medical, general and professional domains.  Medical blindness is defined as complete absence of any visual sensations in both eyes. General blindness is inability of a person to orient himself / herself with the help of vision in space and in the environment, which makes it necessary to resort to outside help while moving.  Professional blindness is a sharp deterioration of sight, precluding a person from performing professional work which requires visual observation, visual monitoring and regulation of labor action.

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